Central America, a part of North America, is a tropical isthmus that connects North America to South America. It includes (7) countries and many small offshore islands. Overall, the land is fertile and rugged, and dominated through its heart by a string of volcanic mountain ranges that are punctuated by a few active and dangerous volcanos.

The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2 million square kilometres,[8] Mexico is the fifth-largest country in the Americas by total area and the 14th largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of 109 million,it is the 11th most populous country. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-one states and a Federal District, the capital city.

In the Pre-Columbian era complex cultures began to form in Mesoamerica. Many matured into advanced civilizations such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, the Maya and the Aztec before the first contact with Europeans. Mexico became a colony of Spain from the landing of Hernán Cortés in 1521 until its independence in 1821. The post-independence period was characterized by economic instability, territorial secession and civil war, including foreign intervention, two empires and two long domestic dictatorships. The latter led to the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time that an opposition party won the presidency from the Institutional Revolutionary Party.

As a regional power and the only Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development since 1994, Mexico is firmly established as an upper middle-income country, considered as a newly industrialized country and has the 11th largest economy in the world by GDP by purchasing power parity. The economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners. Despite being considered an emerging power,the uneven income distribution and the increase in insecurity are issues of concern.